Sorting Algorithms in JavaScript
Sorting can be referred to as arranging files in some particular order. The arrangement performed can be based on the value of each file present. That particular order can be in either an ascending or descending fashion. Sorting algorithms are instructions given to a computer to arrange elements in a particular order. <!more>
Prerequisites
To follow this article along, it will be helpful to have the following:

Some basic knowledge of JavaScript.

Node.js installed on your computer.
Overview
Categories of sorting algorithms
Sorting algorithms are categorized into:

Internal sorting algorithms: These are sorting algorithms applied to a small amount of data. Only the main memory is used. Examples would be bubble sort, insertion sort, and quicksort.

External sorting algorithms: These are sorting algorithms that can be applied to massive amounts of data. As a result, external storage devices such as hard drives, and flash disks are used. An example would be merge sort.
Efficiency of sorting algorithms
Some sorting algorithms are more efficient than others. The effectiveness of a sorting algorithm is usually defined by the following performance measures:

Time complexity: This is the amount of time required by the computer to perform the sorting based on an algorithm.

Memory complexity: It is the amount of computer memory required by the computer to perform the sorting based on an algorithm.
Based on the factors above, an algorithm has four performance cases:

Worst case time complexity: It is a function defined as a result of a maximum number of steps taken on any instance of size n. It is usually expressed in Big O notation.

Average case time complexity: It is a function defined as a result of the average number of steps taken on any instance of size n. It is usually expressed in Big theta notation.

Best case time complexity: It is a function defined as a result of the minimum number of steps taken on any instance of size n. It is usually expressed in Big omega notation.

Space complexity: It is a function defined as a result of additional memory space needed to carry out the algorithm. It is usually expressed in Big O notation.
Strategies applied during sorting

Recursion: Recursion is a programming method where you define a function in terms of itself. The function generally calls itself with slightly modified parameters (in order to converge).

Divide and conquer: The algorithm accomplishes its task by dividing the problem into smaller subproblems and solving them to come up with the overall solution.
Sorting algorithms
For each sorting algorithm discussed below, there is a stepbystep explanation of how the algorithm works, image representation, and implementation of the algorithm using JavaScript.
Bubble sort
Bubble sort follows the recursion technique.
Stepbystep guide:

Start by comparing the first two elements in an array.

Swap them if required.

Continue till the end of the array. At this point, you have made a series of inner passes and completed an outer pass.

Repeat the process until the entire array is sorted.
Image representation
JavaScript implementation
function bubbleSort(arr){
//Outer pass
for(let i = 0; i < arr.length; i++){
//Inner pass
for(let j = 0; j < arr.length  i  1; j++){
//Value comparison using ascending order
if(arr[j + 1] < arr[j]){
//Swapping
[arr[j + 1],arr[j]] = [arr[j],arr[j + 1]]
}
}
};
return arr;
};
console.log(bubbleSort([5,3,8,4,6]));
Output:
[ 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 ]
Bubble sort has the following performance cases:

Worstcase time complexity: Big O (n^2).

Averagecase time complexity: Big theta (n^2).

Bestcase time complexity: Big omega (n).

Space complexity: Big O (1).
Insertion sort
Insertion sort uses the recursion technique. There is a portion of the array that is sorted and the other that is unsorted. So you have to compare the elements from the unsorted portion one by one and insert them into the sorted portion in the correct order. In the guide below we are using ascending order.
Stepbystep guide

Start by comparing the second element of the array with the first element assuming the first element is the sorted portion. Swap if the second element is smaller than the first element.

Iterate through comparing the first element with each element of the unsorted portion. If the element from the unsorted portion is smaller than the first element, swap.

After iterating through the entire array, increment the sorted portion to the next index and recursively compare the value of the last index of the sorted portion with each value of the unsorted portion. Swap where the value of the unsorted portion is smaller.

The sorted portion shall increase until it covers the entire array yielding a sorted array.
Image representation
JavaScript Implementation
function insertionSort(arr){
//Start from the second element.
for(let i = 1; i < arr.length;i++){
//Go through the elements behind it.
for(let j = i  1; j > 1; j){
//value comparison using ascending order.
if(arr[j + 1] < arr[j]){
//swap
[arr[j+1],arr[j]] = [arr[j],arr[j + 1]];
}
}
};
return arr;
}
console.log(insertionSort([23, 1, 10, 5, 2]));
Output:
[ 1, 2, 5, 10, 23 ]
Insertion sort has the following performance cases:

Worstcase time complexity: Big O(n^2).

Averagecase time complexity: Big theta (n^2).

Bestcase time complexity: Big omega (n).

Space complexity: Big O (1).
Selection sort
Selection sort uses the recursion technique. In the guide below, we are using ascending order. For descending order, you do the reverse.
Stepbystep guide

Given an array, assume that the first element in the array is the smallest.

From the other portion of the array, find the minimum value, and swap it with the first element. At this point, you have completed the first pass.

Repeat the same procedure with the rest of the array comparing the elements to the right, not the left.
Image representation
JavaScript Implementation
function selectionSort(arr) {
let min;
//start passes.
for (let i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) {
//index of the smallest element to be the ith element.
min = i;
//Check through the rest of the array for a lesser element
for (let j = i + 1; j < arr.length; j++) {
if (arr[j] < arr[min]) {
min = j;
}
}
//compare the indexes
if (min !== i) {
//swap
[arr[i], arr[min]] = [arr[min], arr[i]];
}
}
return arr;
}
console.log(selectionSort([29, 72, 98, 13, 87, 66, 52, 51, 36]));
Output
[ 13, 29, 36, 51, 52, 66, 72, 87, 98 ]
Selection sort has the following performance cases:

Worstcase time complexity: Big O (n^2).

Averagecase time complexity: Big theta (n^2).

Bestcase time complexity: Big omega (n).

Space complexity: Big O(1).
Merge sort
Merge sort uses the divide and conquer technique. The main concept of merge sort is that an array of length 1 is sorted. The task, therefore, lies in splitting the array into subarrays of size 1 and then merge them appropriately so that it comes up with the sorted array.
Stepbystep guide

Split the array elements into individual elements.

Compare the individual elements and arrange them in order. This results in subarrays of length 1 or 2.

Make an empty array.

Compare the elements of the subarrays and push the smaller of the values to the empty array.

If you had extracted all the values from one of the arrays, push the remaining array to the new array.

Continue until all subarrays have been covered and you have one sorted array.
Image representation
JavaScript implementation
//merging two arrays appropriately.
function merge(arr1, arr2) {
//make a new array and have two value pointers
let res = [],
i = 0,
j = 0;
//sorting the first array.
if (arr1.length > 1) {
let min = 0;
for (let i = 0; i < arr1.length; i++) {
if (i !== min) {
if (arr1[i] < arr1[min]) {
//also swap the elements
[arr1[i], arr1[min]] = [arr1[min], arr1[i]];
//change the minimum
min = i;
}
}
}
}
//sorting the second array.
if (arr2.length > 1) {
let min = 0;
for (let i = 0; i < arr2.length; i++) {
if (i !== min) {
if (arr2[i] < arr2[min]) {
//also swap the elements
[arr2[i], arr2[min]] = [arr2[min], arr2[i]];
//change the minimum
min = i;
}
}
}
}
//Value comparison.
while (i < arr1.length && j < arr2.length) {
if (arr1[i] < arr2[j]) {
res.push(arr1[i]);
i++;
} else {
res.push(arr2[j]);
j++;
}
}
//pushing the rest of arr1.
while (i < arr1.length) {
res.push(arr1[i]);
i++;
}
//pushing the rest of arr2.
while (j < arr2.length) {
res.push(arr2[j]);
j++;
}
return res;
}
//merge sort
function mergeSort(arr) {
//Best case
if (arr.length <= 1) return arr;
//splitting into halves
let mid = Math.ceil(arr.length / 2);
let arr1 = arr.slice(0, mid);
let arr2 = arr.slice(mid);
let arr1_subarrays = [],
sorted_arr1_subarrays = [];
let arr2_subarrays = [],
sorted_arr2_subarrays = [];
//loop through array 1 making subarrays of two elements
for (let i = 0; i < arr1.length; i += 2) {
arr1_subarrays.push(arr1.slice(i, i + 2));
}
//loop through array 2 making subarrays of two elements.
for (let i = 0; i < arr2.length; i += 2) {
arr2_subarrays.push(arr2.slice(i, i + 2));
}
// sorting each subarray of arr1.
for (let i = 0; i < arr1_subarrays.length; i += 2) {
let result = merge(arr1_subarrays[i], arr1_subarrays[i + 1]);
result.forEach((value) => sorted_arr1_subarrays.push(value));
}
// sorting each subarray of arr2.
for (let i = 0; i < arr2_subarrays.length; i += 2) {
let result = merge(arr2_subarrays[i], arr2_subarrays[i + 1]);
result.forEach((value) => sorted_arr2_subarrays.push(value));
}
let result = merge(sorted_arr1_subarrays, sorted_arr2_subarrays);
return result;
}
console.log(mergeSort([70, 50, 30, 10, 20, 40, 60]));
Output:
[ 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 ]
Merge sort has the following performance cases:

Worstcase time complexity: Big O (n * log n).

Averagecase time complexity: Big theta (n * log n).

Bestcase time complexity: Big omega (n * log n).

Space complexity: Big O (n).
Quicksort
Quicksort applies the divide and conquer technique as well. It works by having a pivot element such that the elements to the left of it are less than it and those to the right are greater than it. The pivot element can be any element in the array.
Stepbystep guide

Select a pivot element.

Split the array into two arrays with those less than the pivot element on the left and those greater than the pivot element to the right.

Carry out the above steps recursively until we have subarrays of length 1. Combine the subarrays to yield a sorted array.
Image representation
JavaScript implementation
function partition(items, left, right) {
//rem that left and right are pointers.
let pivot = items[Math.floor((right + left) / 2)],
i = left, //left pointer
j = right; //right pointer
while (i <= j) {
//increment left pointer if the value is less than the pivot
while (items[i] < pivot) {
i++;
}
//decrement right pointer if the value is more than the pivot
while (items[j] > pivot) {
j;
}
//else we swap.
if (i <= j) {
[items[i], items[j]] = [items[j], items[i]];
i++;
j;
}
}
//return the left pointer
return i;
}
function quickSort(items, left, right) {
let index;
if (items.length > 1) {
index = partition(items, left, right); //get the left pointer returned
if (left < index  1) {
//more elements on the left side
quickSort(items, left, index  1);
}
if (index < right) {
//more elements on the right side
quickSort(items, index, right);
}
}
return items; //return the sorted array
}
let items = [5, 3, 7, 6, 2, 9];
console.log(quickSort(items, 0, items.length  1));
Output:
[ 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9 ]
The following steps are followed while implementing quicksort:

Start with the left pointer pointing at index 0 and the right pointer pointing at index 0.

Compare the element at the left pointer with the pivot element. If it is less than, increment the left pointer. Recursively do this until the value at a pointer is not less than the pivot. At this point, stop the iteration.

Compare the element at the right pointer with the pivot element. If it is greater than, decrement the right pointer. Recursively do this until the value at a pointer is not greater than the pivot. At this point, stop the iteration.

When you have stopped the iteration of the left and the right pointer, swap the values being pointed by the right and left pointer.

Increment the right and the left pointer. At this point, a further increment shall cause the left pointer to be greater than the right pointer which shall break the loop returning the left pointer.

Recursively do the steps above until the entire array is sorted.
Quicksort has the following performance cases:

Worstcase time complexity: Big O (n^2).

Averagecase time complexity: Big theta (n * log n).

Bestcase time complexity: Big omega (n * log n).

Space complexity: Big O (n * log n).
Key takeaways

JavaScript by default uses insertion sort for the
sort()
method. This means that it is not appropriate when sorting large data sets. When dealing with large data sets, one should consider other sorting algorithms such as merge sort. 
Generally, a divide and conquer based sorting algorithm is faster than a recursion based sorting algorithm.
Conclusion
With an understanding of sorting algorithms, software developers can figure out the appropriate sorting algorithm to use depending on the data set, the time required, and the space available.
In this article, we covered an introduction to sorting and sorting algorithms, categories of sorting algorithms, the efficiency of sorting algorithms, and discussed the commonly used sorting algorithms.
For a more comprehensive description of sorting algorithms, you can refer to this article .
You can access the entire code from this GitHub Repository
Happy coding!
Peer Review Contributions by: Mohan Raj